A recent study demonstrates that bilateral oophorectomy decreases the risk of ovarian cancer but increases the risk of death from other causes. Researchers from PHAR,LLC; the John Wayne Cancer Institute; USC; Stanford; Brigham and Women’s Hospital/ Harvard; and the University of Auckland conducted a prospective cohort study following over 30,000 Nurses’ Health Study participants for 28 years to investigate long-term health outcomes in women who had either bilateral oophorectomy or ovarian conservation at hysterectomy. Bilateral oophorectomy was associated with increased mortality in women younger than 50 years who never used estrogen therapy, and at no age was oophorectomy associated with increased survival. The full article is now available online ahead-of-print in Obstetrics & Gynecology. An accompanying editorial comments, “Dr. Parker and colleagues have made a significant contribution to our understanding of the effect of estrogen deprivation on women’s health, and they elegantly outline the dramatic increases in mortality.” The editorial is also available online.